Resources and References

How To Learn Online


Quiz. If you answered any of the quiz questions wrong, considering engaging more closely with the material and go back to the relevant section.

References. For the description of the airline crash, I relied on National Transportation Aircraft Accident Report, Northwest Airlines, Inc. McDonnell Douglas DC-9-82, N312RC, Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport, Romulus, Michigan, August 16, 1987". Also see John Lauber, "Northwest 255 at DTW: Anatomy of a Human Error Accident," Human Factors & Aviation Medicine 36, no.4, (1989). Also see the National Transportation Safety Board, Washington, D.C. 20594, Safety Recommendation, A-88-64 through -70" June 27, 1988.

I also relied on media accounts for details about the passengers including Bill Peterson, "The Final Moments of a Flight to Disaster," The Washington Post. August 23, 1987. Also see Steven R. Churm, “Flight 255: Life or Death Turned on Twists of Fate : 7 Who Died in Crash Shared Hope for Their Future in Orange County; 3 Who Missed Plane Saved by Luck,” Los Angeles Times. August 23, 1987, , (accessed September 26, 2016).

Mike Sakal, “Spirits Live on: Arizona Remembers Northwest Flight 255 Crash 25 Years Later.” East Valley Tribune. August 15,2012, (accessed September 26, 2016).

With regard to situational awearness, see Mica R. Endsley and Michelle M. Robertson, "Training for Situation Awareness in Individuals and Teams" in Situation Awareness Analysis and Measurement, eds. Mica R. Endsley and Daniel J. Garland (NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers,2000): 349-366. Also Mica R. Endsley and Daniel J. Garland, "Pilot Situation Awareness Training in General Aviation," in Proceedings of the Triennal Congress of the International Ergonomics Association and Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting 44, no. 11, (2000): 357-360.

On the IES guide, see Harold Pashler et al, “Organizing Instruction and Study to Improve Student Learning. IES Practice Guide. NCER 2007-2004,” National Center for Education Research, 2007,

For the physics study, see Louis Deslauriers, Ellen Schelew, and Carl Wieman, “Improved Learning in a Large-Enrollment Physics Class,” Science 332, no. 6031 (2011): 862–64. doi:10.1126/science.1201783.