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There are number of helpful introductions to cognitive load theory, which is the academic term that Sweller uses to describe his ideas. See helpful guides here and here, for example.

When it comes to managing my own attention, I’ve long used the Pomodoro Technique. It’s a way to promote my own self-efficacy, to manage my own seeking ways, and it’s made me realize that the mastery requires management. There are lots of good Pomodoro tools. I use this one.

As for self-efficacy, Carleton College pulled together a wonderful tool for students of pretty much any age. Over at Psychology Today, there's a nice write-up of the approach as well. See here.

Another way to think about self-efficacy is to think about goals and goal setting. Lots has been written on the idea including this thorough article.


I relied on John Sweller “Story of a Research Program” Education Review: A Multi-Lingual Journal of Book Reviews 23 (2016).

The details about the interaction of online instruction with background music comes from Ruth C. Clark, Building Expertise: Cognitive Methods for Training and performance Improvement, 3rd ed. , Kindle ed.,location 1414 (New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Preiffer, 2008).

Also helpful was Richard Clark, Paul A. Kirschner, and John Sweller, “Putting Students on the Path to Learning: The Case for Fully Guided Instruction,” American Educator 36, no.1,(2012):6-11. 

For the details on Jim Taylor, see Dr. Jim Taylor, “My Story: From 4’9 to World-Ranked,” Dr. Jim Taylor, 2015, (accessed September 14, 2016). Also Inside the Ski Racing Mind: Mental Imagery, “Seeing and Feeling Success in Your Mind’s Eye,” Ski Racing, April 18, 2011.

For an introduction to Bandura's work and the notion of self-efficacy, I relied on “Albert Bandura.” Wikipedia,  September 3, 2016, as well as "self-efficacy' Wikipedia, September 3, 2016, and . Also see “Albert Bandura Biographical Sketch.” I'm indebted to a profile of Bandura, which provided the idea that Bandura is a model of self-efficacy, Christine Foster, “Confidence Man,” Stanford Alumni. September/October 2006.”

For the point about knowledge management, see Kloosterman, Paul. "Learning to learn in practice in non-formal education." Learning to Learn: International Perspectives from Theory and Practice (2014): 271.

Also helpful was:

Chee Ha Lee and Slava Kalyug, Expertise Reversal Effect and Its Instructional Implications, School of Education, the University of New South Wales.

Faria Sana, Tina Weston, and Nicholas J. Cepeda, "Laptop multitasking hinders classroom learning for both users and nearby peers," Computers & Education 62, (2013): 24-31.

Richard Clark, Paul A. Kirschner, and John Sweller, “Putting Students on the Path to Learning: The Case for Fully Guided Instruction,” American Educator 36, no.1,(2012):6-11.

Robert R.Hoffman et al, Accelerated Expertise: Training for High Proficiency in a Complex World (Expertise: Research and Applications Series) (United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis Ltd., 2013). 

For the hundreds of studies on goal setting citation, see Golembiewski, R.T., 2000. "Handbook of organizational behavior, revised and expanded" CRC Press. Also see Horn, Thelma S. Advances in sport psychology. Human Kinetics, 2008.