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  Resources and References

THE SCIENCE OF LEARNING TO LEARN


Quiz. Regarding quiz question number one, see Di Stefano, Giada, Francesca Gino, Gary P. Pisano, and Bradley R. Staats. “Learning by Thinking: Overcoming the Bias for Action through Reflection.” Harvard Business School NOM Unit Working Paper, no. 14–093 (2015): 14–093.

Regarding quiz question number two, see David Dunning, Kerri Johnson, Joyce Ehrlinger, and Justin Kruger, “ Why People Fail to Recognize Their Own Incompetence,” Current Directions in Psychological Science 12 (3) (2003): 83-87.

Regarding quiz question number three, see Rowe, Mary Budd. "Wait time: slowing down may be a way of speeding up!." Journal of teacher education 37.1 (1986): 43-50.

Regarding question number four, see Philip A. Higham and Catherine Gerrard, “Not All Errors Are Created Equal: Metacognition and Changing Answers on Multiple-Choice Tests,” Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale 59, no. 1 (2005): 28.


Resources. If you believe that you would have seen the mustache on the Virgin Mary, try this video.

As for more focused forms of reflection, try this guide from the University of Vermont. Another guide from Miami Dade college is here.

Or just keep a diary or just write up some notes or thoughts. These are all great ways to reflect on a topic.


References. On inattentional blindness, see Christopher F. Chabris et al, "You do not talk about Fight Club if you do not notice Fight Club: Inattentional blindness for a simulated real-world assault,"i-Perception 2.2 (2011): 150-153.

On reflection, see Di Stefano, Giada, Francesca Gino, Gary P. Pisano, and Bradley R. Staats. “Learning by Thinking: Overcoming the Bias for Action through Reflection.” Harvard Business School NOM Unit Working Paper, no. 14–093 (2015): 14–093. 

On the benefits of reflection and outdoors, see Atchley, Ruth Ann, David L. Strayer, and Paul Atchley. "Creativity in the wild: Improving creative reasoning through immersion in natural settings." PloS one 7, no. 12 (2012): e51474.

For bricks, see Moreau, C. Page, and Marit Gundersen Engeset. "The Downstream Consequences of Problem-Solving Mindsets: How Playing with LEGO Influences Creativity." Journal of Marketing Research 53, no. 1 (2016): 18-30.

Also cited is Smallwood, Jonathan, Daniel J. Fishman, and Jonathan W. Schooler. "Counting the cost of an absent mind: Mind wandering as an underrecognized influence on educational performance." Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 14, no. 2 (2007): 230-236.

The detail about Pat Metheny comes from Gary Marcus, Guitar Zero: The Science of Becoming Musical at Any Age (Penguin Books, 2012). 

Ambrose, Susan A., Bridges, Michael W., DiPietro, Michele, Lovett, Marsha C., and Marie K. Norman. How Learning Works: Seven Research-Based Principles for Smart Teaching. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 2010. Kindle Edition.