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  Resources and References


Quiz. Regarding the first and third quiz question, see Richard E. Mayer and Fiorella, Logan. Learning as a Generative Activity: Eight Learning Strategies that Promote Understanding. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015. Also see Logan Fiorella and Richard E. Mayer, “The Relative Benefits of Learning by Teaching and Teaching Expectancy,” Contemporary Educational Psychology 38, no.4 (2013): 281–88.

Regarding the second quiz questions, "why" questions are essentially a form of self-explaining. For more on that approach, see this great APA article, which summarizes the research nicely.

Resources. The best online resource on elaboration comes from the Learning Scientists. See here. For more on argumentation, see this helpful chapter. Again, this great APA article provides a nice introduction.

References. When it comes to Jackson Pollock, I relied on a number of books, including Henry Adams, Tom and Jack: The Intertwined Lives of Thomas Hart Benton and Jackson Pollock, Kindle ed. (New York: Bloomsbury Press, 2009) and Deborah Solomon, Jackson Pollock: A Biography, Kindle ed. (New York: Cooper Square Press, 1987). Also see Emmerling, Leonhard. Jackson Pollock. Taschen, 2003 and Steven, Naifeh, and Gregory White Smith. "Jackson Pollock: an American saga." Woodward, New York (1989).

For the quotes from the Siqueros letter, see Jackson Pollock and Lee Krasner Papers, “David Alfaro Siqueiros Letter to Jackson Pollock, Sandy Pollock, and Harold Lehman, 1936 Dec.” Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, 2016, (accessed September 14, 2016).  Also helpful was Irene Herner, "Siqueiros and Surrealism?", Journal of Surrealism and the Americas (2009), 3, 1-2, 107-127,

For my descriptions of Davis and Kind of Blue, I relied on Ashley Kahn, Kind of Blue (London: Granta Publications, 2001). I also relied on--and quoted from--Fred Kaplan, “Kind of Blue” Slate, August 17, 2009, (accessed September 14, 2016).

For studies providing support for the idea of riffs, see Claire E Weinstein, "Training Students to Use Elaboration Learning Strategies" Contemporary Educational Psychology 7, no. 4 (1982): 301-311. Also see Michelene T. H. Chi et al, “Self-Explanations: How Students Study and Use Examples in Learning to Solve Problems” Cognitive Science 13, no.2, (1989): 145-182.

On Nisbett's work, see Richard E. Nisbett, Mindware: Tools for Smart Thinking (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2015).

For the "sticky images" details, see Bob Harris, Prisoner of Trebekistan: A Decade in Jeopardy! (New York: Crown Publishers, 2006). I'm indebted to Roger Craig for this idea.

For evidence on finger tracing, see Paul Ginns et al, “Learning by Tracing Worked Examples,” Applied Cognitive Psychology 30, no.2, (2015). Claire M. Barlow, Richard P. Jolley and Jenny L. Hallam, “Drawings as Memory Aids: Optimizing the Drawing Method to Facilitate Young Children’s Recall,” Applied Cognitive Psychology 25, no. 3 (2011): 480–87. doi:10.1002/acp.1716. See Sian Beilock, How the Body Knows Its Mind: The Surprising Power of the Physical Environment to Influence How You Think and Feel, New York: Atria Books, Simon & Schuster Inc., 2015) for finger dexterity citation.

Hugo Mercier, Emmanuel Trouche, Hiroshi Yama, Christophe Heintz & Vittorio Girotto (2015) Experts and laymen grossly underestimate the benefits of argumentation for reasoning, Thinking & Reasoning, 21:3, 341-355, DOI: 10.1080/13546783.2014.981582

Briana Mezuk et al, “Impact of participating in a policy debate program on academic achievement: Evidence from the Chicago Urban Debate League” Educational Research and Reviews 6, no.9, (2011): 622-635. Also see Stephen Gorard, Nadia Siddiqui and Beng Huat, Philosophy for Children: Evaluation report and Executive summary, July 2015 (London: Education Endowment Foundation, 2015). I quoted from Resnick, Lauren B. Education and learning to think. National Academies, 1987.

For more on the protege effect, see J. F. Nestojko et al, “Expecting to teach enhances learning and organization of knowledge in free recall of text passages,” Memory & Cognition, 42, no.7, (2014): 1038-1048. DOI: 10.3758/s13421-014-0416-z. Also: Catherine C. Chase et al, "Teachable agents and the protégé effect: Increasing the effort towards learning," Journal of Science Education and Technology 18, no. 4, (2009): 334-352.

The Feynman quote at the end of the chapter comes from Richard P. Feynman, Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman!: Adventures of a Curious Character (New York: WW Norton & Company, 1997). The Davis quote is from Gerald Lyn Early, Miles Davis and American Culture. (USA: Missouri History Museum, 2001).